Begonia (Begonia) is known to mankind from the XVII century, but only two hundred years ago it was grown for decorative purposes. The main feature of the plant is the variety of leaf shapes, buds and color palette. It is worth considering that there is a room and garden begonia. Thus, you can find a variety that would fully satisfy the aesthetic taste of the person who breeds it.
Begonia Varieties and Varieties
The begonia flower belongs to the Begonese family, which has more than 900 species growing in the wild and about 2000 species created by breeders for growing at home and in flowerbeds. Initially, begonia was grown only in greenhouses and "greenhouse" conditions, but then varieties appeared that could withstand the vagaries of the weather and began to be used for decorating flower beds, paths, and so on.Interesting! The name of the begonia received in honor of its discoverer Michel Begon, who first described it at the end of the XVII century.
There is a classification of this plant, according to which all species and varieties are divided into decorative-flowering and decorative-deciduous.
- "Bolivian"the begonia loves the sun. It is grown in hanging baskets, pots. The first shoots are drawn up, and all subsequent ones are pulled down. The growing season lasts 2.5-3.5 months. This variety is resistant to drought and rain. Flowers in the shape of bells, bright of red color.
- "Chanson pink"- ampelous tuberous begonia growing up to 50 cm in height. The flowers are simple, semi-double to 5 cm in diameter. The color is white-pink.
- "Cocktail rum"compact plant up to 25 cm. The leaves are brown-red, greenish in places. It takes 13-15 weeks from sowing until flowering. It blooms profusely, with white flowers with pink or red edges.
- "Senator"- garden begonia with red or white buds. This species is interesting because plants with red flowers also cast red leaves.
- "Royal"," Begonia rex "is grown in pots. This species has a strong root. The length of the leaflets is 23 cm with teeth on the edge. On the leaves, streaks and specks of silver, red, green and pink are admissible.
- "Pundula"has a stem up to 60 cm and leaflets up to 20 cm. The main difference is long, curly shoots. Flowers are bisexual or only for men. The color is bright, orange-red, bud type is terry.
- "Begonia Rex"gives multicolored leaves. In themselves they are wide, with an interesting, variegated shape. The wrong side of the leaf is red, and the front has different colors in spots or individual zones: silver, purple, and bronze.
- "Tiger"Begonia is a hybrid, ampelous plant. It can also be grown in hanging pots. It grows up to 30 cm in height. Sheets are in the shape of a heart with teeth along the edge. The color is motley, striped, from where the name came.
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For the breeding of begonias are used tubers, cuttings, sheets, division of the bush or seeds. All methods are popular and effective.
- When planting seeds get ornamental flowering or ever-flowering plant. Sowing is carried out in February in large containers of medium depth. The soil should consist of 2 parts of leafy ground, 1 part of peat and 1 part of sand. Seeds are sown without digging into the soil, then sprinkled lightly with earth and covered with polyethylene. They are germinated at a temperature of + 20 ... +22 degrees Celsius. Spraying is carried out as necessary. After 2-3 weeks, you can do the first picking, by this time there should be 2 leaves each. In a larger pot (in a permanent place), the begonia is transplanted about a month after sowing.
Begonia flowers reproduction
- Propagated by cuttings of any type of begonias that have stems. To do this, cut the stalk length of 10 cm with 4-6 leaves. The lower leaves are removed, the rest are cut off by half. Place the slices to dry. Such cuttings are placed in a container with soil, and the top is covered with a bottle (plastic). About a month later there will be young leaves and a bottle can be removed.
- The leaf method can be propagated begonia without a stem or type Elatior. To do this, cut a large, healthy leaf and cut into triangles. The incision is made in the direction from the vein in the middle to the edges. In each such piece should be 1-2 veins. Now these pieces are put on wet sand and covered with foil. From time to time they are sprayed from a spray bottle. Over time, the roots will appear on the leaflets below and will be deepened into the ground. And after 3 months, you can plant begonia in a permanent place.
- When breeding tubers use tubers, in which there are small sprouts. In this case, the tubers spread on a damp cloth (it should be on a bright and warm place). Within a few days, you will notice that small roots appeared on the tuber. This is a signal for landing. Begonia tubers are planted in pots, deepening them by no more than 2 cm! This is done at any time, but it is better if the landing will take place in March, since it is at this time that the plants activate their growth.
- Reproduction by dividing bushes or roots gives a good result. It is usually propagated bush varieties. To do this, take the plant out of the ground, free it from large leaves and overgrown stems. The rhizome is divided into several parts (with a knife). Each part must have a sprout and a bud. All sections are powdered with crushed coal and dried, and the roots can be processed with “Kornevin” so that they can grow and recover faster. After all these procedures, they plant in a pot.
How to care for Begonia at home?
Begonia at home
Begonia grows well and quickly both in the open air (in the open field) and in the indoor environment, if you choose the right varieties and provide them with decent care. The following describes home care for room begonias.
- This plant prefers slightly acidified soils with good drainage (peat moss, gravel, river sand).
- Place under the pot is better to choose on the western or eastern window for decorative-flowering species. On these windows a bright light for almost the entire day. But in the summer months, when the sun is active, it is better to reduce the begonia so that burns do not appear on the leaves. But for decorative and deciduous varieties is to find a place in the penumbra.
- The temperature in the room in winter should be within + 15 ... +18 degrees or more, and in summer you should + 21. + 23 degrees Celsius.
- Since in its natural environment, begonia grows with considerable humidity, in a room where it grows, it is also necessary to provide medium or high humidity. To make such conditions it is necessary to install a large pallet with gravel under the pot. Gravel should be wet all the time. As water evaporates, high humidity for begonias will be maintained.
- Water the begonia with water at room temperature, it can be separated. The number of irrigations depends on the period of the year and the land. You need to focus on the fact that the top layer of the earth does not dry out. In winter, begonia tubers go into hibernation and practically do not consume water, so watering is reduced to a minimum - simply so that the earth does not take a lump.
- Top dressing is done when the flower releases the buds. Top dressing needed every 2 weeks throughout the flowering. When buying fertilizer take into account the type of begonia. So, for deciduous nitrogen is necessary: "Kemira", "Uniflor-growth", "Agricol". For the begonias of flowering varieties, potassium phosphate substances are selected: "Pollen", "Bud", "Zdoroviy" and the like. Any fertilizer used according to the instructions on the package.
- Transplantation of room begonia is carried out no more than once a year and as needed (when the flower has grown and needs a larger pot or when the earth is already old and it needs to be updated).
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Garden begonia is usually planted on the north side of the plot, or simply in the shade. Care at home for garden begonia is not difficult is similar to the care of indoor varieties: watering, loosening the soil, removing weeds are carried out regularly and as needed.
Some branching begonias need pruning so that the plant looks neat and grows quickly. For this, the stem is cut and only a stump of up to 6 cm in size is left. After some time, shoots will appear from the sleeping buds, and you can begin to form a beautiful shape.
When late autumn comes, the tubers are sent for wintering. To do this, cut the stems to 3 cm from ground level. Then the tubers are dug, dried for 2-3 weeks and placed in boxes, and covered with sand over the top. So begonia should be stored until early spring, and then it is again planted in a flower bed.
Possible problems and their solution
Problems and solutions
The most common problems in growing are diseases that can spoil the appearance or lead to wilting of the plant. Therefore, care at home for begonia involves inspecting the flower for possible problems and timely intervention for treatment.
- Gray mold indicates high humidity and insufficient ventilation. In this case, ventilate the room more often or even endure begonia on the balcony, loggia, if it is summer outside.
- When leaf rot on the leaves appear brown spots. For treatment, it is necessary to cut off the affected areas and treat the cut sites with an antiseptic.
- Twisting of leaves is observed at low humidity and too high temperatures.
- Pulling leaflets and their yellowing indicates a lack of nutrients. A simple fertilizer complex fertilizer will correct the situation.
- The brown edges of the leaves indicate excess light in the room or lack of moisture.
- Fungal diseases can be treated with fungicides such as "topaz", "Fitosporin", "Zircon".