Pansies are a herbaceous, perennial plant, although cultivated species are always grown as annuals or biennials. In the people it is often called violet tricolor or viol. About the features of this culture, the most interesting varieties and cultivation will be discussed later in the article.
Pansy is home to Europe. As the appearance of new species, the cultivation of the plant, it spread throughout the world. The popularity is largely due to the fact that home care is not difficult, but the culture is mainly valued for its beauty. This plant grows a bush height of 15-30 cm.
Flowering is usually early and long lasting. Bud is located on the spike. Flowers have an unusual shape and color, and this attracts attention. The flower may have a different type of petals: straight, double, with smooth or wavy edges. The petals are always bright and combine different colors and shades. White, yellow, black, violet, blue, red and pink, as well as many other colors are included in the palette inherent in the viola. But the middle is usually yellow and although it is very small, it is hard not to notice.
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Kinds of Flower Pansies
Two species of violets are called pansies: tricolor field violet and Vittrok violet. Pansy flower includes more than 500 species. They are usually classified according to the size of the bud.
- The small ones have flowers up to 4 cm. Such varieties such as “White”, “Little Red Riding Hood”, “Blue Blue” grow here.
- Large species give inflorescences up to 6 cm: "Jupiter", "Evening Heat", "Ice King", "Adonis" and others.
- Giant pansies have flowers with a diameter of more than 6 cm. As a rule, they are early. These include, for example, the Swiss Giants variety series.
In addition, pansy flowers are often distinguished by appearance.
- Spotted have on the bud surface spots: "Tiger's Eye F1", "Rembrandt", "Gonny glacier".
- Monochrome viols have only one color. Only small spots or stripes on the lower petals are allowed: "Amber Falls F1", "Padparadzha F1", "Russian Beauty", "Snow White", "Storm".
- Two-colored pansies are varieties, the upper and lower petals of which have different colors. Among such species are: Caribbean F1, Lord Beaconsfield, Blue F1 Beacon.
Varieties of pansies
Varieties of pansies
Varieties of pansies are a huge number, but I would like to highlight the most spectacular of them.
- "The black crystal"- a two-year-old viola. It is a highly branching and winter-hardy plant. It grows up to 30 cm, not more. It blooms early and abundantly, both in open ground and in balconies. It has a unique color of petals. They are rich, black, velvet-colored, it is possible blue or purple tide.
- "Cassis F1"gives large flowers of purple color with a white border around the edge. While releasing flowers, this plant can not fail to attract attention. It has a long flowering, unpretentiousness and is grown both on balconies and flower beds.
- "Flamenco red"- large-flowered pansies. Bushes are small with double and semi-double flowers with a diameter of up to 7 cm. Petals are cherry-red with brown veins.
- "Moulin Rouge F1"different lush buds and a variety of shades. The stems are strong and long, which allows you to create floral arrangements. This is a moisture-loving and cold-resistant variety. Flowers of light and dark shades of purple.
- "White with a peephole"The viola grows within 20-25 cm. It blooms from May to September. Flowers are up to 6 cm in diameter, white with a violet-black" eye "closer to the core. It is grown in balcony boxes, flower beds, and garden vases.
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Pansy flowers are propagated by seed, bush dividing or cuttings.
- It is easiest to propagate pansies with seeds, but seeds are not always available, and germination can be low if they are not of high quality. Although this is the most popular method and care at home for pansies is very simple. It should be noted that the seeds from this flower should be collected immediately, as soon as the boxes turned yellow, because then they fall off.
- If you already have a ready-made large pansy flower, but you want to propagate it, you should use the method of dividing the bush. In this case, the bush is divided into several inflorescences and seated in separate containers.
- When there is a mother plant or the viola is taken from acquaintances, friends, reproduction can be used by cutting. Shoots are cut from May to July and planted at a short distance from each other. Depth should be negligible. Watering is carried out not often. Approximately in 3-4 weeks sprouts take root.
Pansies are heat-loving plants. They grow well only in sunny areas. The soil is preferred loose, moist and nutritious. It is better that it is drained with an average level of acidity.Interesting! In sunny areas pansy flowers always grow with large and bright flowers, but the flowering itself does not last long. But in dark places all the way around.
Planting is carried out at different periods of the year - it depends on the climate and the desired flowering period. In view of this, there are two methods of cultivating a crop: seeds and seedlings. To get started is to describe the most popular method - seeds.
In this case, the viola are sown in the prepared soil from about the end of July. The land must combine an equal amount of peat, humus, garden soil and sand. Shoots appear after about 2 weeks. And at the end of the summer, the seedlings obtained are transplanted to a permanent place with a distance of 10-30 cm between individual shoots.
Seedlings planting method is used in case you need abundant and long flowering. To get good seedlings, you need to sow pansy flower in containers or greenhouses in February or early March. Sowing depth not more than 4-5 mm. The soil for the viola is chosen fertile, treated for pests and diseases. After sowing, the ground is moistened and covered with a film or clear glass. The first shoots can be expected in 10 days.
To get good sprouts in a short time, it is necessary to maintain the temperature at +20 degrees. But after the appearance of sprouts, the temperature is gradually reduced and simultaneously the film is removed. Young seedlings are fed with nitrogen and phosphorus to accelerate growth. Feedings are carried out every 3 weeks.
The first picks are carried out after the appearance of 2 leaves. But the transfer to a permanent place is done after the appearance of the first buds or during flowering. To worry about the survival rate of the flower is not worth it. Viola is resistant to transplantation and even minor damage to the roots. The main thing for the successful cultivation of planting a flower in the fertile land. The sprouts are taken out of the cups together with a lump of earth and simply transferred to the ready hole in the new pot or flowerbed, and then the roots are covered with earth and watered.
How to care for flowers?
Flower pansies stand out for their unpretentiousness in the flower bed. Bad weather, bad conditions, poor care rarely affect the condition of the plant. Although, of course, in order for the culture to grow without deviation and to bloom in time, it needs some care at home.
- Watering is carried out not very often - so that the top layer of the earth does not dry out.
- Top dressings allow to prolong flowering of pansies, as well as provide large buds and rich color. They are carried out with humus, compost or purchased fertilizers for flowers. Top dressing done during budding and flowering - only 2 times per season!
- From time to time, the soil is loosened, weeds are harvested.
- During the flowering period, it is necessary to remove excess, dried buds, since they not only spoil the “picture”, but also take nutrients from the plant.
- Before the onset of cold weather, pansies are covered with mulch (foliage, straw, sawdust, or something similar) so that they do not freeze out during severe frosts.
Diseases and pests
Diseases and pests affect the flower of pansies, provided they exist on nearby plants or under adverse conditions.
- Mealy dew is manifested by white bloom on the stems and leaves. To combat it, use "Fundazol" or homemade soda solution with soap.
- Black leg and gray rot are not fully cured, therefore, if one or several plants are affected, all healthy shoots must be transplanted into the decontaminated land, and the affected ones burned.
- Among the pests, this flower most often affects spider mites and aphids. You can get rid of them by spraying chlorophos or insecticides for garden flowers: Actellic, Fitoverm and the like.